MYC amplification on double minute chromosomes in plasma cell leukemia with double IGH/CCND1 fusion genes

Cancer Genet. 2020 Apr:242:35-40. doi: 10.1016/j.cancergen.2020.01.049. Epub 2020 Jan 27.


In multiple myeloma (MM), MYC rearrangements that result in increased MYC expression are associated with an aggressive form of MM and adverse outcome. However, the consequences of MYC amplification in MM remain unclear. Here, we describe an unusual case of plasma cell leukemia (PCL) harboring MYC amplification on double minute chromosomes (dmin). A 79-year-old woman was initially diagnosed as having BJP-κ type MM with bone lesions. After seven months, the disease progressed to secondary PCL: leukocytes 49.1 × 109/L with 77% plasma cells showing lymphoplasmacytic appearance. The bone marrow was infiltrated with 76% plasma cells immunophenotypically positive for CD38 and negative for CD45, CD19, CD20, and CD56. The karyotype by G-banding and spectral karyotyping was 48,XX,der(14)t(11;14)(q13;q32),+der(14)t(14;19)(q32;q13.1),+18,6~95dmin[15]/46,XX[5]. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detected multiple MYC signals on dmin and double IGH/CCND1 fusion signals on der(14)t(11;14) and der(14)t(14;19). Most plasma cells were diffusely and strongly positive for MYC and CCND1 by immunohistochemistry. The patient died of progressive disease after one week. MYC amplification led to high expression of MYC and rapid disease progression, indicating its clinical significance in the pathogenesis of MM/PCL. MYC amplification on dmin may be a very rare genetic event closely associated with the progression to PCL and coexistence of IGH/CCND1 fusions.

Keywords: Double minute chromosomes; IGH/CCND1 fusion gene; MYC amplification; Multiple myeloma; Plasma cell leukemia.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Bone Marrow / pathology
  • Chromosome Aberrations
  • Chromosome Banding
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / ultrastructure
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / genetics
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 14 / ultrastructure
  • Disease Progression
  • Extrachromosomal Inheritance*
  • Fatal Outcome
  • Female
  • Gene Amplification*
  • Gene Duplication
  • Genes, myc*
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence
  • Leukemia, Plasma Cell / genetics*
  • Leukemia, Plasma Cell / pathology
  • Multiple Myeloma / genetics*
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics*
  • Translocation, Genetic


  • IGH-CCND1 fusion protein, human
  • Oncogene Proteins, Fusion