Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and their inactivation with biocidal agents

J Hosp Infect. 2020 Mar;104(3):246-251. doi: 10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Abstract

Currently, the emergence of a novel human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has become a global health concern causing severe respiratory tract infections in humans. Human-to-human transmissions have been described with incubation times between 2-10 days, facilitating its spread via droplets, contaminated hands or surfaces. We therefore reviewed the literature on all available information about the persistence of human and veterinary coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces as well as inactivation strategies with biocidal agents used for chemical disinfection, e.g. in healthcare facilities. The analysis of 22 studies reveals that human coronaviruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) coronavirus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) coronavirus or endemic human coronaviruses (HCoV) can persist on inanimate surfaces like metal, glass or plastic for up to 9 days, but can be efficiently inactivated by surface disinfection procedures with 62-71% ethanol, 0.5% hydrogen peroxide or 0.1% sodium hypochlorite within 1 minute. Other biocidal agents such as 0.05-0.2% benzalkonium chloride or 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate are less effective. As no specific therapies are available for SARS-CoV-2, early containment and prevention of further spread will be crucial to stop the ongoing outbreak and to control this novel infectious thread.

Keywords: Biocidal agents; Chemical inactivation; Coronavirus; Disinfection; Inanimate surfaces; Persistence.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Betacoronavirus / drug effects*
  • Betacoronavirus / growth & development*
  • Coronavirus Infections / transmission*
  • Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Environmental Microbiology
  • Humans
  • Microbial Viability*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / transmission*

Substances

  • Disinfectants

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2