The hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) infection rates were estimated in patients attending a venereal disease outpatient clinic: 759 heterosexuals and 154 homosexual-bisexual men. The anti-HBc prevalence was higher in homo-bisexual men (68.8 per 100) than in heterosexuals (41.8 per 100), whereas HBsAg was roughly the same in the two groups (about 6 per 100). The anti-HBc prevalence rate among heterosexuals was higher than that estimated in hospital personnel from the same geographical area. A positive association between anti-HBc prevalence and present or past sexually transmitted diseases (STD) was found among homo-bisexual men. Anti-HBc was also positively associated with herpes simplex type 2 antibodies in both heterosexuals and homo-bisexual men. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that sexual behavior also plays a role in the spread of infection among heterosexuals. Ten of the 46 HBsAg-positive subjects were anti-HDV positive: 6 of the 36 heterosexuals and 4 of the 10 homosexuals. All HDV-positive subjects had present or past STDs. These findings suggest sexual transmission of HDV infection.