Creating a functional cerebral cortex requires a series of complex and well-coordinated developmental steps. These steps have evolved across species with the emergence of cortical gyrification and coincided with more complex behaviors. The presence of diverse progenitor cells, a protracted timeline for neuronal migration and maturation, and diverse neuronal types are developmental features that have emerged in the gyrated cortex. These factors could explain how the human brain has expanded in size and complexity. However, their complex nature also renders new avenues of vulnerability by providing additional cell types that could contribute to disease and longer time windows that could impact the composition and organization of the cortical circuit. We aim to discuss the unique developmental steps observed in human corticogenesis and propose how disruption of these species-unique processes could lead to malformations of cortical development.
Keywords: MCD = malformation of cortical development; connectivity; human cortical development; neuronal migration; progenitors cells.
Copyright © 2020 Subramanian, Calcagnotto and Paredes.
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