Breast cancer incidence is increasing worldwide with more than 600,000 deaths reported in 2018 alone. In current practice treatment options for breast cancer patients consists of surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy or targeting of classical markers of breast cancer subtype: estrogen receptor (ER) and HER2. However, these treatments fail to prevent recurrence and metastasis. Improved understanding of breast cancer and metastasis biology will help uncover novel biomarkers and therapeutic opportunities to improve patient stratification and treatment. We will first provide an overview of current methods and models used to study breast cancer biology, focusing on 2D and 3D cell culture, including organoids, and on in vivo models such as the MMTV mouse model and patient-derived xenografts (PDX). Next, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic approaches and their integration will be considered in the context of breast cancer susceptibility, breast cancer drivers, and therapeutic response and resistance to treatment. Finally, we will discuss how 'Omics datasets in combination with traditional breast cancer models are useful for generating insights into breast cancer biology, for suggesting individual treatments in precision oncology, and for creating data repositories to undergo further meta-analysis. System biology has the potential to catalyze the next great leap forward in treatment options for breast cancer patients.
Keywords: PDX; breast cancer; genomics; organoids; proteomics; system biology; transcriptomics.
Copyright © 2020 Parsons and Francavilla.
Translational Metabolomics of Head Injury: Exploring Dysfunctional Cerebral Metabolism with Ex Vivo NMR Spectroscopy-Based Metabolite Quantification.In: Kobeissy FH, editor. Brain Neurotrauma: Molecular, Neuropsychological, and Rehabilitation Aspects. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2015. Chapter 25. Brain Neurotrauma: Molecular, Neuropsychological, and Rehabilitation Aspects. 2015. PMID: 26269925 Free Books & Documents. Review.
Imaging and the completion of the omics paradigm in breast cancer.Radiologe. 2018 Nov;58(Suppl 1):7-13. doi: 10.1007/s00117-018-0409-1. Radiologe. 2018. PMID: 29947931 Free PMC article. Review.
Transcriptome- and proteome-oriented identification of dysregulated eIF4G, STAT3, and Hippo pathways altered by PIK3CA H1047R in HER2/ER-positive breast cancer.Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016 Dec;160(3):457-474. doi: 10.1007/s10549-016-4011-9. Epub 2016 Oct 22. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2016. PMID: 27771839
'Omics Approaches in Breast Cancer Research and Clinical Practice.Adv Anat Pathol. 2016 Nov;23(6):356-367. doi: 10.1097/PAP.0000000000000128. Adv Anat Pathol. 2016. PMID: 27740960 Review.
Characterization of patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDXs) as models for estrogen receptor positive (ER+HER2- and ER+HER2+) breast cancers.J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017 Jun;170:65-74. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2016.05.001. Epub 2016 May 3. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017. PMID: 27154416 Free PMC article.