CD155 is a ligand for DNAM-1, TIGIT, and CD96 and is involved in tumor immune responses. Unlike mouse cells, human cells express both membranous CD155 and soluble CD155 (sCD155) encoded by splicing isoforms of CD155. However, the role of sCD155 in tumor immunity remains unclear. Here, we show that, after intravenous injection with sCD155-producing B16/BL6 melanoma, the numbers of tumor colonies in wild-type (WT), TIGIT knock-out (KO), or CD96 KO mice, but not DNAM-1 KO mice, were greater than after injection with parental B16/BL6 melanoma. NK cell depletion canceled the difference in the numbers of tumor colonies in WT mice. In vitro assays showed that sCD155 interfered with DNAM-1-mediated NK cell degranulation. In addition, DNAM-1 had greater affinity than TIGIT and CD96 for sCD155, suggesting that sCD155 bound preferentially to DNAM-1. Together, these results demonstrate that sCD155 inhibits DNAM-1-mediated cytotoxic activity of NK cells, thus promoting the lung colonization of B16/BL6 melanoma.
© 2020 Okumura et al.