Cancer as a disease of old age: changing mutational and microenvironmental landscapes

Br J Cancer. 2020 Mar;122(7):943-952. doi: 10.1038/s41416-019-0721-1. Epub 2020 Feb 11.


Why do we get cancer mostly when we are old? According to current paradigms, the answer is simple: mutations accumulate in our tissues throughout life, and some of these mutations contribute to cancers. Although mutations are necessary for cancer development, a number of studies shed light on roles for ageing and exposure-dependent changes in tissue landscapes that determine the impact of oncogenic mutations on cellular fitness, placing carcinogenesis into an evolutionary framework. Natural selection has invested in somatic maintenance to maximise reproductive success. Tissue maintenance not only ensures functional robustness but also prevents the occurrence of cancer through periods of likely reproduction by limiting selection for oncogenic events in our cells. Indeed, studies in organisms ranging from flies to humans are revealing conserved mechanisms to eliminate damaged or oncogenically initiated cells from tissues. Reports of the existence of striking numbers of oncogenically initiated clones in normal tissues and of how this clonal architecture changes with age or external exposure to noxious substances provide critical insight into the early stages of cancer development. A major challenge for cancer biology will be the integration of these studies with epidemiology data into an evolutionary theory of carcinogenesis, which could have a large impact on addressing cancer risk and treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Aging / pathology*
  • Biological Evolution
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasms
  • Tumor Microenvironment / genetics*