LINE-1 retrotransposon overexpression is a hallmark of human cancers. We identified a colorectal cancer wherein a fast-growing tumor subclone downregulated LINE-1, prompting us to examine how LINE-1 expression affects cell growth. We find that nontransformed cells undergo a TP53-dependent growth arrest and activate interferon signaling in response to LINE-1. TP53 inhibition allows LINE-1+ cells to grow, and genome-wide-knockout screens show that these cells require replication-coupled DNA-repair pathways, replication-stress signaling and replication-fork restart factors. Our findings demonstrate that LINE-1 expression creates specific molecular vulnerabilities and reveal a retrotransposition-replication conflict that may be an important determinant of cancer growth.