Antioxidant activities of mamao luang (Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg.) fruit: Extraction and application in raw chicken patties

J Food Sci. 2020 Mar;85(3):647-656. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15035. Epub 2020 Feb 11.


Extraction of mamao luang (hereafter called mamao) with different solvents and varying solid to liquid (S:L) ratio was conducted to verify its antioxidant activities. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content, total monomeric anthocyanin content, and antioxidant activities, namely, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the unrefined extracts, were analyzed. The extraction with 70% acetone and 70% methanol and the S:L ratio of 1:30 seemed to be more appropriate and gave significantly (P < 0.05) higher values of the previously mentioned properties. Whole ground fruits were then incorporated into the blended chicken patties to compare their antioxidant and antimicrobial properties with butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA). During refrigeration storage of 20 days, the highest level (1,000 mg TPC/kg meat) could retard lipid oxidation relatively comparable to the efficiency of BHA (200 ppm). However, when microbiological aspect was considered together, a limited storage of 12 days was consequently suggested. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Mamao fruit is a splendid source of phenolic compounds. The antioxidant properties have been demonstrated using DPPH and FRAP assay. The suitable type of solvent and S:L ratio were provided for the extraction. Our findings have shown that addition of mamao, a source of natural antioxidants, especially at the highest level increased oxidative stability of chicken patties. The research outcomes identify the potential bioactive compound and provide beneficial information related to the feasibility of incorporation of mamao phenolics as antioxidant agents in suitable food matrices. However, further investigation is still required for successful application in meat and meat products.

Keywords: Antidesma thwaitesianum Müll. Arg; antioxidant activity; chicken patty; extraction; oxidative stability.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anthocyanins / analysis
  • Antioxidants / analysis*
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Chickens
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Food Additives / analysis*
  • Food Additives / isolation & purification
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Malpighiales / chemistry*
  • Meat Products / analysis*
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Plant Extracts / analysis*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Flavonoids
  • Food Additives
  • Phenols
  • Plant Extracts