Extraction optimization and purification of anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and evaluation of tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the anthocyanins

J Food Sci. 2020 Mar;85(3):696-706. doi: 10.1111/1750-3841.15037. Epub 2020 Feb 11.


The aim of this study was to extract and purify anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum Murr. and evaluate their tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Response surface methodology was devoted to optimize enzyme-assisted extraction of anthocyanins from L. ruthenicum dried fruits. Extraction at 38 °C for 37 min using water-containing pectinase (52.04 mg/100 g dried fruit) rendered an anthocyanin extraction yield of 19.51 ± 0.21 mg/g. The purified anthocyanins were separated from the extract by macroporous resin XDA-6. Antioxidant tests in vitro suggested that the extract and the purified anthocyanins exhibited a potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging capacity, hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity, superoxide radical scavenging capacity, and total reducing power. Thirteen anthocyanins from L. ruthenicum dried fruits were analyzed by HPLC-MS. Moreover, the purified anthocyanins had inhibitory effect on tyrosinase monophenolase (IC50 = 1.483 ± 0.058 mg/mL), and the type of inhibition was competitive inhibition (Ki = 39.83 ± 1.4 mg/mL). The maximum inhibitory activity of the purified anthocyanins (3.00 mg/mL) on tyrosinase diphenolase was 42.16 ± 0.77%, and the type of inhibition was anticompetitive inhibition (Kis = 2.387 ± 0.10 mg/mL). PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The anthocyanins from L. ruthenicum dried fruits can be used as tyrosinase inhibitors in medicine, cosmetics, and food preservation industries.

Keywords: RSM; antioxidant activity; extract; natural pigment; tyrosinase inhibition.

MeSH terms

  • Anthocyanins / chemistry*
  • Anthocyanins / isolation & purification
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / isolation & purification
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry*
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / isolation & purification
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Lycium / chemistry*
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase / chemistry
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Plant Extracts / isolation & purification


  • Anthocyanins
  • Antioxidants
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Plant Extracts
  • Monophenol Monooxygenase