Ninety-Day Nephrotoxicity Evaluation of 3-MCPD 1-Monooleate and 1-Monostearate Exposures in Male Sprague Dawley Rats Using Proteomic Analysis

J Agric Food Chem. 2020 Mar 4;68(9):2765-2772. doi: 10.1021/acs.jafc.0c00281. Epub 2020 Feb 21.


Fatty acid esters of 3-monochloropropane 1,2-diol (3-MCPD esters) are processing-induced food toxicants, with the kidney as their major target organ. For the first time, this study treated Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with 3-MCPD 1-monooleate at 10 and 100 mg/kg BW/day and 1-monostearate at 15 and 150 mg/kg BW/day for 90 days and examined for their potential semi-long-term nephrotoxicity and the associated molecular mechanisms. No bodyweight difference was observed between groups during the study. Both 3-MCPD 1-monooleate and 1-monostearate resulted in a dose-dependent increase of serum urea creatinine, uric acid and urea nitrogen levels, and histological renal impairment. The proteomic analysis of the kidney samples showed that the 3-MCPD esters deregulated proteins involved in the pathways for ion transportation, apoptosis, the metabolism of xenobiotics, and enzymes related to endogenous biological metabolisms of carbohydrates, amino acids, nitrogen, lipids, fatty acids, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, providing partial explanation for the nephrotoxicity of 3-MCPD esters.

Keywords: 3-MCPD esters; apoptosis; endogenous biological metabolism; ion transporting; nephrotoxicity; proteomics; xenobiotics.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Creatinine / urine
  • Esters / metabolism
  • Esters / toxicity
  • Humans
  • Kidney / drug effects*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney Diseases / etiology
  • Kidney Diseases / genetics
  • Kidney Diseases / metabolism*
  • Kidney Diseases / urine
  • Male
  • Proteomics
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Stearates / chemistry
  • Stearates / metabolism
  • Stearates / toxicity*
  • Uric Acid / urine
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin / metabolism
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin / toxicity*


  • Esters
  • Stearates
  • Uric Acid
  • alpha-Chlorohydrin
  • Creatinine