Endocr Pract. 2020 Apr;26(4):423-428. doi: 10.4158/EP-2019-0418. Epub 2020 Feb 11.


Objective: To describe patient characteristics at presentation, management, and fertility preservation rates among a cohort of Israeli children and adolescents with gender dysphoria (GD). Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 106 consecutive children and adolescents with GD (<18 years) referred to and followed at the multidisciplinary Israeli Pediatric Gender Dysphoria Clinic from March 2013 through December 2018. Results: Of the 106 patients, 10 were prepubertal (9 prepubertal transgender females), and 96 were pubertal (38 pubertal transgender females). The GD population increased 11-fold since the establishment of our clinic in 2013. The subject's median age at referral was 15.5 years (range, 4.6 to 18 years). At the time of referral, 91 (95%) of the pubertal group had completed sexual maturation in their assigned gender at birth. Thirteen (13.5%) patients had attempted suicide, and 11 (11.5%) reported having had suicidal thoughts. Fourteen (45%) pubertal transgender females and 3 (6.5%) pubertal transgender males completed fertility preservation. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog treatment was prescribed in 77 (80%) patients at a mean age of 15.9 ± 1.6 years. Gender-affirming hormones were prescribed in 61 (64%) patients at a mean age of 16.5 ± 1.3 years. No severe side effects were recorded. Two (2%) of the pubertal group expressed regret about medical treatment. Conclusion: Children and adolescents with GD are presenting for medical attention at increasing rates. Israeli adolescents with GD have high fertility preservation rates, perhaps attributable to cultural perspectives. Taking advantage of the option to preserve fertility can be achieved when proper counseling is both available and promoted by medical personnel. Abbreviations: GAH = gender-affirming hormone; GD = gender dysphoria; GnRHa = gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog; MHP = mental health professional.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Fertility Preservation*
  • Gender Dysphoria*
  • Humans
  • Israel
  • Male
  • Referral and Consultation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Transgender Persons*