Ultrasound and Radiation-Induced Catalytic Oxidation of 1-Phenylethanol to Acetophenone with Iron-Containing Particulate Catalysts

Molecules. 2020 Feb 8;25(3):740. doi: 10.3390/molecules25030740.


Iron-containing particulate catalysts of 0.1-1 µm size were prepared by wet and ball-milling procedures from common salts and characterized by FTIR, TGA, UV-Vis, PXRD, FEG-SEM, and XPS analyses. It was found that when the wet method was used, semi-spherical magnetic nanoparticles were formed, whereas the mechanochemical method resulted in the formation of nonmagnetic microscale needles and rectangles. Catalytic activity of the prepared materials in the oxidation of 1-phenylethanol to acetophenone was assessed under conventional heating, microwave (MW) irradiation, ultrasound (US), and oscillating magnetic field of high frequency (induction heating). In general, the catalysts obtained by wet methods exhibit lower activities, whereas the materials prepared by ball milling afford better acetophenone yields (up to 83%). A significant increase in yield (up to 4 times) was observed under the induction heating if compared to conventional heating. The study demonstrated that MW, US irradiations, and induction heating may have great potential as alternative ways to activate the catalytic system for alcohol oxidation. The possibility of the synthesized material to be magnetically recoverable has been also verified.

Keywords: alcohol oxidation; ball-milling; induction heating; iron catalysts; magnetic recovery; mechanochemical synthesis; microwave irradiation; ultrasound.

MeSH terms

  • Acetophenones / chemistry*
  • Benzyl Alcohols / chemistry*
  • Catalysis / radiation effects
  • Heating
  • Iron / chemistry*
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles / chemistry*
  • Microwaves
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Thermodynamics
  • Ultrasonic Waves


  • Acetophenones
  • Benzyl Alcohols
  • Magnetite Nanoparticles
  • Iron
  • methylphenyl carbinol
  • acetophenone