Effects of a Solid Lipid Curcumin Particle Formulation on Chronic Activation of Microglia and Astroglia in the GFAP-IL6 Mouse Model

Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 11;10(1):2365. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-58838-2.

Abstract

Chronic glial activation is characterized by increased numbers of activated glial cells, secreting free radicals and cytotoxic cytokines, subsequently causing neuronal damage. In order to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Longvida® Optimised Curcumin (LC), we fed 500 ppm of LC to 2-month-old wild type and GFAP-IL6 mice for 6 months. LC feeding led to a significant reduction in the number of Iba-1+ microglia by 26% in the hippocampus and by 48% in the cerebellum, GFAP+ astrocytes by 30%, and TSPO+ cells by 24% in the hippocampus and by 31% in the cerebellum of the GFAP-IL6 mice. The morphology of the cells was assessed and LC significantly decreased the dendritic length of microglia and the convex area, convex perimeter, dendritic length, nodes and number of processes of astrocytes in the hippocampus while decreasing the soma area and perimeter in the cerebellum, in LC-fed GFAP-IL6 mice. In addition, LC feeding increased pre- and postsynaptic protein levels and improved balance measured by Rotarod. Together, these data suggest that LC is able to attenuate the inflammatory pathology and ameliorate neurodegeneration and motor deficits in GFAP-IL6 mice. For patients with neuro-inflammatory disorders, LC might potentially reverse the detrimental effects of chronic glial activation.