Six Tips for Giving Good Health Care to Anyone With a Cervix

AMA J Ethics. 2020 Feb 1;22(2):E168-175. doi: 10.1001/amajethics.2020.168.


Cervical cancer is most frequently diagnosed in patients ages 35 to 44, but risk persists as individuals age. Among patients who are regularly screened via the Pap test, cancer is rare and death rates have dropped dramatically in the United States. Nevertheless, access to regular screening can be difficult for transgender men (individuals assigned female at birth but with a male gender identity) due to misinformation, discomfort scheduling appointments, fear of being mistreated or of refused services, lack of insurance, and clinicians' lack of knowledge. This narrative explores 6 barriers to cervical cancer screening for transgender men and offers recommendations for eliminating cervical cancer inequality.

Publication types

  • Personal Narrative

MeSH terms

  • Delivery of Health Care / standards*
  • Early Detection of Cancer* / ethics
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control