Heredity of type 2 diabetes confers increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2020 Jan;8(1):e000945. doi: 10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000945.


Introduction and objective: Heredity of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with greater risk for developing T2DM. Thus, individuals who have a first-degree relative with T2DM (FDRT) provide a natural model to study factors of susceptibility towards development of T2DM, which are poorly understood. Emerging key players in T2DM pathophysiology such as adverse oxidative stress and inflammatory responses could be among possible mechanisms that predispose FDRTs to develop T2DM. Here, we aimed to examine the role of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses as mediators of this excess risk by studying dynamic postprandial responses in FDRTs.

Research design and methods: In this open-label case-control study, we recruited normoglycemic men with (n=9) or without (n=9) a family history of T2DM. We assessed plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, cytokines and F2-isoprostanes, expression levels of oxidative and inflammatory genes/proteins in circulating mononuclear cells (MNC), myotubes and adipocytes at baseline (fasting state), and after consumption of a carbohydrate-rich liquid meal or insulin stimulation.

Results: Postprandial glucose and insulin responses were not different between groups. Expression of oxidant transcription factor NRF2 protein (p<0.05 for myotubes) and gene (pgroup=0.002, ptime×group=0.016), along with its target genes TXNRD1 (pgroup=0.004, ptime×group=0.007), GPX3 (pgroup=0.011, ptime×group=0.019) and SOD-1 (pgroup=0.046 and ptime×group=0.191) was upregulated in FDRT-derived MNC after meal ingestion or insulin stimulation. Synergistically, expression of target genes of inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (pgroup=0.001, ptime×group=0.007) was greater in FDRT-derived MNC than in non-FDRT-derived MNC after meal ingestion or insulin stimulation.

Conclusions: Our findings shed light on how heredity of T2DM confers increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. This could provide early insights into the underlying mechanisms and future risk of FDRTs for developing T2DM and its associated complications.

Keywords: adipocytes; family history of type 2 diabetes; inflammation; mononuclear cells; myotubes; oxidative stress.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2* / genetics
  • F2-Isoprostanes
  • Heredity*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / genetics
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics


  • F2-Isoprostanes