Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
. 2020 Feb 10;20(3):943.
doi: 10.3390/s20030943.

Novel Metamaterials-Based Hypersensitized Liquid Sensor Integrating Omega-Shaped Resonator With Microstrip Transmission Line

Affiliations
Free PMC article

Novel Metamaterials-Based Hypersensitized Liquid Sensor Integrating Omega-Shaped Resonator With Microstrip Transmission Line

Yadgar I Abdulkarim et al. Sensors (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In this paper, a new metamaterials-based hypersensitized liquid sensor integrating omega-shaped resonator with microstrip transmission line is proposed. Microwave transmission responses to industrial energy-based liquids are investigated intensively from both numerical and experimental point of view. Simulation results concerning three-dimensional electromagnetic fields have shown that the transmission coefficient of the resonator could be monitored by the magnetic coupling between the transmission line and omega resonator. This sensor structure has been examined by methanol-water and ethanol-water mixtures. Moreover, the designed sensor is demonstrated to be very sensitive for identifying clean and waste transformer oils. A linear response characteristic of shifting the resonance frequency upon the increment of chemical contents/concentrations or changing the oil condition is observed. In addition to the high agreement of transmission coefficients (S21) between simulations and experiments, obvious resonant-frequency shift of transmission spectrum is recognized for typical pure chemical liquids (i.e., PEG 300, isopropyl alcohol, PEG1500, ammonia, and water), giving rise to identify the type and concentration of the chemical liquids. The novelty of the work is to utilize Q factor and minimum value of S21 as sensing agent in the proposed structure, which are seen to be well compatible at different frequencies ranging from 1-20 GHz. This metamaterial integrated transmission line-based sensor is considered to be promising candidate for precise detection of fluidics and for applications in the field of medicine and chemistry.

Keywords: chemical liquids; metamaterials; omega resonator; sensor; transformer oil.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declared that they have no conflicts of interest to this work.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Proposed metamaterial-based liquid sensor design: (a) perspective view; (b) back view.
Figure 2
Figure 2
MTM based liquid sensor design: (a) design dimensions; (b) boundary conditions and added port of each side of the transmission line at simulation program.
Figure 3
Figure 3
(a) Capacitive and inductive part; (b) the equivalent circuit diagram of the proposed MTM integrated transmission line-based sensor structure.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Simulated and measured results of the transmission coefficient when air is present in the sensor hole.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Effect of the variation of (a) width of the transmission line WT, (b) gap of the omega-shaped resonator g, and (c) width of the omega-shaped resonator W on the resonance frequency.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Simulated results for the proposed sensor structure at 2.1 GHz: (a) surface current distribution; (b) electric field distribution.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Experimental setup to determine dielectric measurement of the chemical samples by 85070E dielectric probe kit.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Measured results for methanol–water mixture: (a) the dielectric constant; (b) dielectric loss at 2.5 -3 GHz, and (c) dielectric loss factor at 1–20 GHz frequency band.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Dependence of resonance frequency on methanol volume concentration.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Measured results for ethanol–water mixture (a) the dielectric constant (b) dielectric loss factor at 2.5–3 GHz (c) dielectric loss factor at 1–20 GHz frequency band.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Simulated results variation of resonance frequency with ethanol content and dielectric constant linearity dependent.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Measured results for different samples: (a) dielectric constant; (b) dielectric loss factor.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Measured results for the clean and waste transformer oils (a) dielectric constant; (b) dielectric loss factor.
Figure 14
Figure 14
(a) Experimental measurement setup, (b) fabricated proposed structure; (c) fabricated structure connected to the vector network analyzer.
Figure 15
Figure 15
Effect of methanol (CH3OH) concentration on the transmission coefficient over 2.5- 3 GHz: (a) simulated; (b) measured results.
Figure 16
Figure 16
Dependence of transmission coefficient on the ethanol (CH3CH2OH) concentration over 2.5–3 GHz: (a) simulated; (b) measured results.
Figure 17
Figure 17
Transmission coefficient of the different pure chemical liquids over 2.5–3 GHz: (a) simulated; (b) measured results.
Figure 18
Figure 18
Transmission coefficient for the clean and waste transformer oils at frequency 1–8 GHz (a) simulated result; (b) fabricated result.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

References

    1. Abdulkarim Y.I., Deng L., Altıntaş O., Unal E., Karaaslan M., Altintas O. Metamaterial absorber sensor design by incorporating swastika shaped resonator to determination of the liquid chemicals depending on electrical characteristics. Phys. E Low Dimens. Syst. Nanostr. 2019;114:113593. doi: 10.1016/j.physe.2019.113593. - DOI
    1. Smith D.R., Willie J.P., Vier D.C., Nemat-Nasser S.C., Schultz S. Composite medium with simultaneously negative permeability and permittivity. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2000;84:4184. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.4184. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Hoffman A.J., Alekseyev L., Howard S.S., Franz K.J., Wasserman D., Podolskiy V.A., Narimanov E.E., Sivco D.L., Gmachl C., Wasserman D. Negative refraction in semiconductor metamaterials. Nat. Mater. 2007;6:946–950. doi: 10.1038/nmat2033. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Veselago V.G. The electrodynamics of substances with simultaneously negative values of ϵϵ and μ. Sov. Phys. Uspekhi. 1968;10:509–514. doi: 10.1070/PU1968v010n04ABEH003699. - DOI
    1. Dincer F., Karaaslan M., Emen U., Olcay A., Sabah C. Multi-band metamaterial absorber: Design, experiment and physical interpretation. Appl. Comput. Electromagn. Soc. J. 2014;29:197–202.
Feedback