In recent years, there has been an increasing number of clinical trials for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) are commonly excluded from these studies, usually due to concerns over drug-drug interactions associated with antiretroviral therapy. The Steatohepatitis in HIV Emerging Research Network, a group of international experts in hepatology and infectious diseases, discusses our current understanding on the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus and NASH, and the issues related to the inclusion of PLWH in NASH clinical trials. Recent trials addressing NASH treatment in PLWH are discussed. The risk of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral therapy and aramchol, cenicriviroc, elafibranor, obeticholic acid and resmetirom (MGL-3196), which are currently in phase 3 trials for the treatment of NASH, are reviewed. A model for trial design to include PLWH is proposed, strongly advocating for the scientific community to include this group as a subpopulation within studies.
© 2020 The Authors. Hepatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.