Infrared navigation system for light dosimetry during pleural photodynamic therapy

Phys Med Biol. 2020 Apr 14;65(7):075006. doi: 10.1088/1361-6560/ab7632.


Pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) is performed intraoperatively for the treatment of microscopic disease in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. Accurate delivery of light dose is critical to PDT efficiency. As a standard of care, light fluence is delivered to the prescribed fluence using eight isotropic detectors in pre-determined discrete locations inside the pleural cavity that is filled with a dilute Intralipid solution. An optical infrared (IR) navigation system was used to monitor reflective passive markers on a modified and improved treatment delivery wand to track the position of the light source within the treatment cavity during light delivery. This information was used to calculate the light dose, incorporating a constant scattered light dose and using a dual correction method. Calculation methods were extensively compared for eight detector locations and seven patient case studies. The light fluence uniformity was also quantified by representing the unraveled three-dimensional geometry on a two-dimensional plane. Calculated light fluence at the end of treatment delivery was compared to measured values from isotropic detectors. Using a constant scattered dose for all detector locations along with a dual correction method, the difference between calculated and measured values for each detector was within 15%. Primary light dose alone does not fully account for the light delivered inside the cavity. This is useful in determining the light dose delivered to areas of the pleural cavity between detector locations, and can serve to improve treatment delivery with implementation in real-time in the surgical setting. We concluded that the standard deviation of light fluence uniformity for this method of pleural PDT is 10%.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Humans
  • Infrared Rays*
  • Lung Neoplasms / therapy
  • Mesothelioma / therapy
  • Mesothelioma, Malignant
  • Photochemotherapy* / methods
  • Pleural Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Radiometry / methods*