Purpose: To describe the burden, and characteristics, of influenza-like illness (ILI) associated with non-influenza respiratory viruses (NIRV).
Methods: We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational study of adults admitted with ILI during three influenza seasons (2012-2015). Patients were screened for picornavirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), coronavirus, human metapneumovirus, adenovirus, bocavirus, parainfluenza virus, and influenza, by PCR on nasopharyngeal samples. We excluded patients coinfected with NIRV and influenza.
Results: Among 1421 patients enrolled, influenza virus was detected in 535 (38%), and NIRV in 215 (15%), mostly picornavirus (n = 61), RSV (n = 53), coronavirus 229E (n = 48), and human metapneumovirus (n = 40). In-hospital mortality was 5% (NIRV), 4% (influenza), and 5% (no respiratory virus). As compared to influenza, NIRV were associated with age (median, 73 years vs. 68, P = 0.026), chronic respiratory diseases (53% vs. 45%, P = 0.034), cancer (14% vs. 9%, P = 0.029), and immunosuppressive drugs (21% vs. 14%, P = 0.028), and inversely associated with diabetes (18% vs. 25%, P = 0.038). On multivariable analysis, only chronic respiratory diseases (OR 1.5 [1.1-2.0], P = 0.008), and diabetes (OR 0.5 [0.4-0.8], P = 0.01) were associated with NIRV detection.
Conclusions: NIRV are common in adults admitted with ILI during influenza seasons. Outcomes are similar in patients with NIRV, influenza, or no respiratory virus.
Keywords: Coronavirus; Human metapneumovirus; Influenza; Influenza-like illness; Picornavirus; Respiratory syncytial virus.