Pathophysiology and management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension related to trauma

Surv Ophthalmol. 2020 Sep-Oct;65(5):530-547. doi: 10.1016/j.survophthal.2020.02.003. Epub 2020 Feb 11.


Ocular trauma is a significant cause of blindness worldwide, particularly if associated with glaucoma. Direct damage from blunt or penetrating trauma, bleeding, inflammation, lens-related problems, orbital and brain vascular pathologies related to trauma, and chemical injuries may increase intraocular pressure and lead to traumatic glaucoma. Treatment may be as simple as eliminating the underlying cause in some conditions or management can be challenging, depending on the mechanism of damage. If proper management is not undertaken, visual outcomes can be poor. We discuss a broad spectrum of trauma-related mechanisms of intraocular pressure elevation, as well as their management.

Keywords: angle recession; carotid-cavernous fistula; hemolytic glaucoma; hemosiderotic glaucoma; hyphema; iritis; orbital hemorrhage; steroid-induced glaucoma; suprachoroidal hemorrhage; traumatic glaucoma; vitreous hemorrhage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Disease Management*
  • Glaucoma / etiology*
  • Glaucoma / physiopathology
  • Glaucoma / therapy
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / physiology*
  • Ocular Hypertension / etiology*
  • Ocular Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Ocular Hypertension / therapy
  • Wounds and Injuries / complications*