Importance: Patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma (ie, stage ≥T3 and/or node positive) have high rates of recurrence despite surgery and adjunctive perioperative therapies, which also have high toxicity profiles. Evaluation of pharmacogenomically dosed perioperative gFOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and UGT1A1 genotype-directed irinotecan) to optimize efficacy while limiting toxic effects may have value.
Objective: To evaluate the coprimary end points of margin-negative (R0) resection rates and pathologic response grades (PRGs) of gFOLFIRINOX therapy among patients with locally advanced gastroesophageal adenocarcinoma.
Design, setting, and participants: This single-group phase 2 trial, conducted at 2 academic medical centers from February 2014 to March 2019, enrolled 36 evaluable patients with locally advanced adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, gastroesophageal junction, and gastric body. Data analysis was conducted in May 2019.
Interventions: Patients received biweekly gFOLFIRINOX (fluorouracil, 2400 mg/m2 over 46 hours; oxaliplatin, 85 mg/m2; irinotecan, 180 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 6/6, 135 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 6/7, or 90 mg/m2 for UGT1A1 genotype 7/7; and prophylactic peg-filgastrim, 6 mg) for 4 cycles before and after surgery. Patients with tumors positive for ERBB2 also received trastuzumab (6-mg/kg loading dose, then 4 mg/kg).
Main outcomes and measures: Margin-negative resection rate and PRG.
Results: A total of 36 evaluable patients (27 [78%] men; median [range] age, 66 [27-85] years; 10 [28%] with gastric body cancer; 24 [67%] with intestinal-type tumors; 6 [17%] with ERBB2-positive tumors; 19 [53%] with UGT1A1 genotype 6/6; 16 [44%] with genotype 6/7; and 1 [3%] with genotype 7/7) were enrolled. Of these, 35 (97%) underwent surgery; 1 patient (3%) died after completing neoadjuvant chemotherapy while awaiting surgery. Overall, R0 resection was achieved in 33 of 36 patients (92%); 2 patients (6%) with linitis plastica achieved R1 resection. Pathologic response grades 1, 2, and 3 occurred in 13 patients (36%), 9 patients (25%), and 14 patients (39%), respectively, and PRG 1 was observed in 11 of 24 intestinal-type tumors (46%). Median disease-free survival was 30.1 months (95% CI, 15.0 months to not reached), and median overall survival was not reached (95% CI, 8.3 months to not reached). There were no differences in outcomes by UGT1A1 genotype group. A total of 38 patients, including 2 (5%) with antral tumors, were evaluable for toxic effects. Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurring in 5% or more of patients during the perioperative cycles included diarrhea (7 patients [18%]; 3 of 19 patients [16%] with genotype 6/6; 2 of 16 patients [13%] with genotype 6/7; 2 of 3 patients [67%] with genotype 7/7), anemia (2 patients [5%]), vomiting (2 patients [5%]), and nausea (2 patients [5%]).
Conclusions and relevance: In this study, perioperative pharmacogenomically dosed gFOLFIRINOX was feasible, providing downstaging with PRG 1 in more than one-third of patients and an R0 resection rate in 92% of patients.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02366819.
Total Neoadjuvant Therapy With FOLFIRINOX in Combination With Losartan Followed by Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer: A Phase 2 Clinical Trial.JAMA Oncol. 2019 Jul 1;5(7):1020-1027. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.0892. JAMA Oncol. 2019. PMID: 31145418 Clinical Trial.
Effect of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Surgical Resection on Survival in Patients With Limited Metastatic Gastric or Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer: The AIO-FLOT3 Trial.JAMA Oncol. 2017 Sep 1;3(9):1237-1244. doi: 10.1001/jamaoncol.2017.0515. JAMA Oncol. 2017. PMID: 28448662 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
North Central Cancer Treatment Group N0543 (Alliance): A phase 2 trial of pharmacogenetic-based dosing of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and capecitabine as first-line therapy for patients with advanced small bowel adenocarcinoma.Cancer. 2017 Sep 15;123(18):3494-3501. doi: 10.1002/cncr.30766. Epub 2017 May 10. Cancer. 2017. PMID: 28493308 Free PMC article. Clinical Trial.
Perioperative chemo(radio)therapy versus primary surgery for resectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach, gastroesophageal junction, and lower esophagus.Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013 May 31;(5):CD008107. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008107.pub2. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013. PMID: 23728671 Review.
FOLFIRINOX for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: a systematic review and patient-level meta-analysis.Lancet Oncol. 2016 Jun;17(6):801-810. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(16)00172-8. Epub 2016 May 6. Lancet Oncol. 2016. PMID: 27160474 Free PMC article. Review.