Objective: The overall objective of this study was to investigate the effects of hinokitiol on periodontal bone loss in a murine model of experimental periodontitis and evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of hinokitiol in vitro.
Design: Periodontitis was induced by tying a silk ligature around the maxillary second molar of mice for 8 days. Hinokitiol was injected once a day for 7 days into the palatal gingiva of the ligated molar. Periodontal bone loss was then assessed morphometrically in the maxillary second molar, and the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinucleated giant cells around the molar was quantified. The bacterial load of the silk ligature was calculated by counting the number of colony-forming units, while the transcription levels of proinflammatory cytokine-related genes in the palatal gingiva were evaluated by real-time qPCR. The activity of hinokitiol against LPS-induced transcription of proinflammatory genes in RAW 264.7 macrophages was also examined.
Results: Local treatment with hinokitiol significantly inhibited the alveolar bone loss and osteoclast differentiation induced by tooth ligation. In addition, hinokitiol treatment decreased the oral bacterial load of the silk ligature and downregulated the mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokine-related genes, both in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion: The results indicated that hinokitiol exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity and exerts a protective effect against periodontitis.
Keywords: Alveolar bone loss; Hinokitiol; Inflammation; Ligation-induced murine model of periodontitis; Periodontitis.
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