Peripheral inflammatory responses accompany many neurological disorders, including stroke. The gut-brain axis opens new avenues in our understanding of stroke progression and abrogation of secondary cell death. Certain microbiomes, especially those related to inflammation, appear to closely reflect the homeostasis and dysbiosis of both the brain and the gut, suggesting their potential application as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. A paradigm shift from purely central towards incorporating peripheral sequestration of cell death pathways may improve stroke therapeutic outcomes. Recognizing this gut-brain axis as key to disease pathology and treatment is likely to usher innovative approaches in cell-based regenerative medicine for stroke.
Keywords: Cerebral ischemia; central nervous system; gastrointestinal tract; inflammation; microbiome; peripheral nervous system; stem cells.