Purpose: To compare the performance of biparametric magnetic resonance imaging (bpMRI) to that of multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) in combination with prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) in detecting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa) in patients with PSA serum levels of 4∼10ng/mL.
Materials and methods: A total of 123 men (mean age, 66.3±8.9 [SD]; range: 42-83 years) with PSA serum levels of 4∼10ng/mL with suspected csPCa were included. All patients underwent mpMRI at 3 Tesla and transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy in their clinical workup and were followed-up for >1 year when no csPCa was found at initial biopsy. The mpMRI images were reinterpreted according to the Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS, v2.1) twice in two different sessions using either mpMRI sequences or bpMRI sequences. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to whether csPCa was detected. The PI-RADS (mpMRI or bpMRI) categories and PSAD were used in combination to detect csPCa. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and decision curve analyses were performed to compare the efficacy of the different models (mpMRI, bpMRI, PSAD, mpMRI+PSAD and bpMRI+PSAD).
Results: Thirty-seven patients (30.1%, 37/123) had csPCa. ROC analysis showed that bpMRI (AUC=0.884 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.814-0.935]) outperformed mpMRI (AUC=0.867 [95% CI: 0.794-0.921]) (P=0.035) and that bpMRI and mpMRI performed better than PSAD (0.682 [95% CI: 0.592-0.763]) in detecting csPCa; bpMRI+PSAD (AUC=0.907 [95% CI: 0.841-0.952]) performed similarly to mpMRI+PSAD (AUC=0.896 [95% CI: 0.828-0.944]) (P=0.151) and bpMRI (P=0.224). The sensitivity and specificity were 81.1% (95% CI: 64.8-92.0%) and 88.4% (95% CI: 79.7-94.3%), respectively for bpMRI, and 83.8% (95% CI: 68.0-93.8%) and 80.2% (95% CI: 70.2-88.0%), respectively for mpMRI (P>0.999 for sensitivity and P=0.016 for specificity). Among the 5 decision models, the decision curve analysis showed that all models (except for PSAD) achieved a high net benefit.
Conclusion: In patients with PSA serum levels of 4∼10ng/mL, bpMRI and bpMRI combined with PSAD achieve better performance than mpMRI in detecting csPCa; bpMRI has a higher specificity than mpMRI, which could decrease unnecessary biopsy, and may serve as a potential alternative to mpMRI to optimize clinical workup.
Keywords: Gadolinium chelate; Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); Prostate neoplasms; Prostate-specific antigen.
Copyright © 2020 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.