Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, a new nematode parasite, Paracapillaria (Paracapillaria) gastrica n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the stomach of the marine fish (variegated lizardfish) Synodus variegatus (Lacépède) (Aulopiformes: Synodontidae) from off New Caledonia. This species is mainly characterised by the length of the spicule (267 µm), the proximal spicule end expanded to form a conspicuous folded, lobular rim, the presence of a well-developed caudal bursa supported by two lateral projections (rays) not adhering to the posterior border of body and by the size of eggs (54-60 × 24-27 µm) with non-protruding polar plugs. Paracapillaria gastrica n. sp. is the first known capillariid species parasitic in a host belonging to the fish order Aulopiformes and the first species of this genus reported from fishes in New Caledonian waters and the South Pacific Ocean.