Graphene oxide enters the rice roots and disturbs the endophytic bacterial communities

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Apr 1;192:110304. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110304. Epub 2020 Feb 14.


The environmental release of graphene oxide (GO) will certainly induce the GO exposure to plants. To date, the influence of GO on the intracellular structures and the endophytic bacterial ecology of plants have been rarely reported. In the present study, the rice seedlings were exposed to GO (5 mg/L) under hydroponic condition for fifteen days with periodic stir. The cellular structures damage, GO deposition and oxidative stress were found in rice root after GO exposure. A Illumina analysis based on the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene showed that the richness, evenness and diversity of endophytic bacterial communities of rice root decreased due to GO exposure. The relative abundance of beneficial endophytic bacterial populations decreased after GO exposure. Out of potential phenotypes predicted by BugBase, the relative abundance of Gram negative, stress-tolerant and biofilm-forming phenotypes, presented an increase trend after GO exposure.

Keywords: Endophytic bacteria ecology; Graphene oxide; Intracellular structures; Rice.

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / classification
  • Bacteria / drug effects
  • Bacteria / genetics
  • Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Endophytes / classification
  • Endophytes / drug effects
  • Endophytes / genetics
  • Endophytes / isolation & purification
  • Graphite / metabolism
  • Graphite / toxicity*
  • Hydroponics
  • Microbiota / drug effects*
  • Oryza / drug effects
  • Oryza / metabolism
  • Oryza / microbiology*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Plant Roots / drug effects
  • Plant Roots / metabolism
  • Plant Roots / microbiology
  • Seedlings / drug effects
  • Seedlings / metabolism
  • Seedlings / microbiology
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / metabolism
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • graphene oxide
  • Graphite