Our aim was to determine the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in a nation-wide population based cohort from Spain (email@example.com study). The target was the Spanish population. In total 5072 people older than 18 years,were randomly selected from all over Spain). Socio-demographic and clinical data, survey on habits (physical activity and food consumption) and weight, height, waist, hip and blood pressure were recorder. A fasting blood draw and an oral glucose tolerance test were performed. Determinations of serum glucose were made. In the follow-up the same variables were collected and HbA1c was determined. A total of 2408 subjects participated in the follow-up. In total, 154 people developed diabetes (6.4% cumulative incidence in 7.5 years of follow-up). The incidence of diabetes adjusted for the structure of age and sex of the Spanish population was 11.6 cases/1000 person-years (IC95% = 11.1-12.1). The incidence of known diabetes was 3.7 cases/1000 person-years (IC95% = 2.8-4.6). The main risk factors for developing diabetes were the presence of prediabetes in cross-sectional study, age, male sex, obesity, central obesity, increase in weight, and family history of diabetes. This work provides data about population-based incidence rates of diabetes and associated risk factors in a nation-wide cohort of Spanish population.