Despite the widespread adoption of organoids as biomimetic tissue models, methods to comprehensively analyze cell-type-specific post-translational modification (PTM) signaling networks in organoids are absent. Here, we report multivariate single-cell analysis of such networks in organoids and organoid cocultures. Simultaneous analysis by mass cytometry of 28 PTMs in >1 million single cells derived from small intestinal organoids reveals cell-type- and cell-state-specific signaling networks in stem, Paneth, enteroendocrine, tuft and goblet cells, as well as enterocytes. Integrating single-cell PTM analysis with thiol-reactive organoid barcoding in situ (TOBis) enables high-throughput comparison of signaling networks between organoid cultures. Cell-type-specific PTM analysis of colorectal cancer organoid cocultures reveals that shApc, KrasG12D and Trp53R172H cell-autonomously mimic signaling states normally induced by stromal fibroblasts and macrophages. These results demonstrate how standard mass cytometry workflows can be modified to perform high-throughput multivariate cell-type-specific signaling analysis of healthy and cancerous organoids.