Purpose: The research goal is to develop dietary strategies to help address the growing incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). This study has investigated the effectiveness of green banana resistant starch (GBRS) and probiotic Bacillus coagulans MTCC5856 spores for the amelioration of dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.
Methods: Eight-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed standard rodent chow diet supplemented with either B. coagulans, GBRS or its synbiotic combination. After 7 days supplementation, colitis was induced by adding 2% DSS in drinking water for 7 days while continuing the supplemented diets. Animal health was monitored and after 14 days all animals were sacrificed to measure the biochemical and histochemical changes associated with each supplement type.
Results: The disease activity index and histological damage score for DSS-control mice (6.1, 17.1, respectively) were significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than the healthy mice. Synbiotic supplementation alleviated these markers (- 67%, - 94% respectively) more adequately than B. coagulans (- 52%, - 58% respectively) or GBRS (- 57%, - 26%, respectively) alone. Compared to DSS-control synbiotic supplementation significantly (p < 0.0001) maintained expressions of tight junction proteins. Moreover, synbiotic effects accounted for ~ 40% suppression of IL-1β and ~ 29% increase in IL-10 levels in serum while also reducing C-reactive protein (- 37%) compared to that of the DSS-control. While, B. coagulans alone could not induce additional levels of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production beyond the caecum, the synbiotic combination with GBRS resulted in substantial increased SCFA levels across the whole length of the colon.
Conclusion: The synbiotic supplementation with B. coagulans and GBRS ameliorated the overall inflammatory status of the experimental IBD model via synergistic functioning. This supports researching its application in mitigating inflammation in human IBD.
Keywords: Bacillus spores; Green banana; Inflammatory bowel diseases; Mucosal barrier; Prebiotic; Probiotic; Resistant starch; Short-chain fatty acids; Synbiotic.