Primary brain tumors are among the deadliest cancers that remain highly incurable. A need exists for new approaches to tumor therapy that can circumvent the blood brain barrier (BBB), target highly resistant tumors and cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) as well create an anti-cancer immunomodulatory environment. Successful treatments may also require a combinatory approach utilizing surgery, chemotherapy, radiation and novel ablation strategies that can both eliminate the bulk tumor and prevent any potential residual CSCs from propagating in the resected tissue. A number of thermal and non-thermal ablation methods have been developed and tested, which have gained much enthusiasm for the treatment of brain tumors. Here we review the most common primary brain tumors and the candidate ablation methods for targeting the tumor and its microenvironment.
Keywords: Brain tumor; Cancer stem cells; GFAP; H-FIRE; Histotripsy; IRE; Laser and radiofrequency ablation; Sox2.
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