Higher intakes of fruits and vegetables are related to fewer menopausal symptoms: a cross-sectional study

Menopause. 2020 May;27(5):593-604. doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001511.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the associations between fruit and vegetable (FV) intake, and its subgroups and menopausal symptoms along with its subtypes in postmenopausal women.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included 393 postmenopausal women in municipality health centers in the south of Tehran, Iran. Sociodemographic data, dietary intakes, and anthropometric measures were obtained from individuals. Menopause rating scale (MRS) questionnaire was employed to measure menopausal symptoms. The total MRS score (TMRSS) was the sum of the somatic score (SS), psychological score (PS), and urogenital score (US). Participants were divided into low and high total MRS and its domain scores.

Results: After adjustment for confounding variables, an inverse relationship was found between total FV with TMRSS (odds ratio [OR] 0.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.06-0.81) and SS (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.11-0.82). In addition, the consumption of total fruits was significantly related to lower SS (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.10-0.71). Only intake of citrus fruits was inversely associated with TMRSS (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.07-0.71) and SS (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.70). Likewise, intakes of total FV (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.37-4.41), total vegetables (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.10-5.88), green leafy vegetables (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.47-8.75), dark yellow vegetables (OR 2.28, 95% CI 1.00-5.18), other vegetables (OR 5.23, 95% CI 1.17-15.39), and citrus fruits were linked to higher US (OR 4.35, 95% CI 1.77-10.71).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that some FV subgroups had inverse associations with climacteric symptoms, whereas higher intake of some subgroups of FV appeared to be associated with more urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Female
  • Fruit*
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Menopause
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Vegetables*