Context: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) diagnosed in early pregnancy is a health care challenge because it increases the risk of adverse outcomes. Plasma-glycated CD59 (pGCD59) is an emerging biomarker for diabetes and GDM. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of pGCD59 as a biomarker of early GDM and its association with delivering a large for gestational age (LGA) infant.
Objectives: To assess the performance of pGCD59 to identify women with GDM in early pregnancy (GDM < 20) and assess the association of pGCD59 with LGA and potentially others adverse neonatal outcomes linked to GDM.
Methods: Blood levels of pGCD59 were measured in samples from 693 obese women (body mass index > 29) undergoing a 75-g, 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at <20 weeks' gestation in the Vitamin D and Lifestyle Intervention study: the main analyses included 486 subjects who had normal glucose tolerance throughout the pregnancy, 207 who met criteria for GDM at <20 weeks, and 77 diagnosed with GDM at pregnancy weeks 24 through 28. Reference tests were 75-g, 2-hour OGTT adjudicated based on International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group criteria. The index test was a pGCD59 ELISA.
Results: Mean pGCD59 levels were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in women with GDM < 20 (3.9 ± 1.1 standard peptide units [SPU]) than in those without (2.7 ± 0.7 SPU). pGCD59 accurately identified GDM in early pregnancy with an area under the curve receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-0.90). One-unit increase in maternal pGCD59 level was associated with 36% increased odds of delivering an LGA infant (odds ratio for LGA vs non-LGA infant: 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.8; P = 0.016).
Conclusion: Our results indicate that pGCD59 is a simple and accurate biomarker for detection of GDM in early pregnancy and risk assessment of LGA.
Keywords: biomarkers; epidemiology; gestational diabetes mellitus; glycation; prediction.
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