Treatment of hypophosphatasia

Wien Med Wochenschr. 2020 Apr;170(5-6):112-115. doi: 10.1007/s10354-020-00736-3. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Abstract

Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare disorder with perinatal, infantile, childhood, and adult presentations. Severe forms are autosomal recessive with an early onset, whereas milder forms have a later onset. The underlying cause of the disease is a mutation based on a genetic disorder of the tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) gene, leading on the one hand to decreased activity of the TNSALP enzyme, and on the other hand to accumulation of TNSALP substrates. Symptoms like non-traumatic and non-healing fractures, musculoskeletal pain, chondrocalcinosis, seizures, premature loss of fully rooted teeth or delayed development of milk teeth, respiratory insufficiency, and calcinosis in muscles, kidneys, and joints occur. Supportive treatment is important for HPP patients, including mechanical ventilation, accurate fracture treatment, physical therapy, dental monitoring, and follow-up care to avoid subsequent problems. A causal enzyme therapy replacement with asfotase-alfa was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2015. Asfotase-alfa improves respiratory insufficiency, bone mineralization, and long-term survival, and has a very good safety profile.

Keywords: Alkaline phosphatase; Fractures; Muscle pain; Nephrocalcinosis; Rare disease.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Hypophosphatasia / diagnosis*
  • Hypophosphatasia / genetics*
  • Hypophosphatasia / therapy*
  • Kidney
  • Musculoskeletal Pain*
  • Rare Diseases
  • Respiratory Insufficiency*