Molecular Regulation of Notch Signaling by Gremlin

Adv Exp Med Biol. 2020;1227:81-94. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-36422-9_6.

Abstract

Gremlin is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that can act as a BMP antagonist, and recently, has been described as a ligand of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Gremlin shares properties with the Notch signaling pathway. Both participate in embryonic development and are reactivated in pathological conditions. Gremlin is emerging as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker of renal diseases. Here we review the role of the Gremlin-VEGFR2 axis in renal damage and downstream signaling mechanisms, such as Notch pathway.

Keywords: BMP; Fibrosis; Gremlin; Inflammation; Notch; Renal damage; TGF-β; VEGFR2.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism*
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Kidney / pathology
  • Receptors, Notch / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta / metabolism
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism

Substances

  • GREM1 protein, human
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Receptors, Notch
  • Transforming Growth Factor beta
  • Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2