Gremlin is a member of the TGF-β superfamily that can act as a BMP antagonist, and recently, has been described as a ligand of the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Gremlin shares properties with the Notch signaling pathway. Both participate in embryonic development and are reactivated in pathological conditions. Gremlin is emerging as a potential therapeutic target and biomarker of renal diseases. Here we review the role of the Gremlin-VEGFR2 axis in renal damage and downstream signaling mechanisms, such as Notch pathway.
Keywords: BMP; Fibrosis; Gremlin; Inflammation; Notch; Renal damage; TGF-β; VEGFR2.