Objective: This study aimed to investigate the longitudinal association of the combination of poor appetite (PA) and low masticatory function (LMF) with sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults.
Methods: In total, 173 community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years participated in the 3-year cohort study. Appetite assessment using the Simplified Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (SNAQ) and masticatory function assessment using spectrophotometric measurement of differences in gum colour before and after masticating colour-changeable chewing gum (ΔE*ab) were performed at baseline. SNAQ score of ≤ 14 was defined as PA. The lowest tertile of ΔE*ab was defined as LMF. Follow-up examinations were administered annually over a 3-year period to determine sarcopenia incidence, which was defined by the criteria proposed by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of sarcopenia incidence according to the presence of PA and LMF were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results: At baseline, 81 participants (46.8%) had neither PA nor LMF, 34 (19.7%) had PA alone, 35 (20.2%) had LMF alone, and 23 (13.3%) had both PA and LMF. On follow-up, 31 participants (17.9%) developed sarcopenia. After adjusting for covariates, the adjusted HR for sarcopenia in participants with both PA and LMF was 4.4 (95% confidence interval = 1.6-12.2) compared with those without PA or LMF. PA or LMF alone was not significantly associated with sarcopenia development.
Conclusions: Coexisting PA and LMF increase the risk of sarcopenia development among community-dwelling Japanese adults aged ≥ 75 years.
Keywords: appetite; cohort studies; mastication; sarcopenia.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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