Pharmacotherapy of hypertension in patients with pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease

Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2020 Jul;21(10):1201-1217. doi: 10.1080/14656566.2020.1726318. Epub 2020 Feb 19.


Introduction: Hypertension is the most common co-morbidity in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), with prevalence gradually increasing across CKD Stages to the extent that about 90% of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are hypertensives. Several factors contribute to blood pressure (BP) elevation and guide the therapeutic interventions that should be employed in these patients.

Areas covered: This review summarizes the existing data for the management of hypertension, regarding optimal BP targets and the use of major antihypertensive classes in patients with CKD.

Expert opinion: Management of hypertension in CKD requires both lowering BP levels and reducing proteinuria to minimize the risk of both CKD progression and cardiovascular disease. In this respect, aggressive control of office BP to levels <130/80 mmHg has long been proposed for patients with proteinuric nephropathies. Following evidence from recent studies that confirmed significant reductions in renal and cardiovascular outcomes with strict BP control, most, but not all, of international guidelines, suggest such BP goals for all hypertensive patients, including those with CKD. Use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers is the treatment of choice for patients with proteinuric nephropathies, while, in most patients with CKD, combination treatment with two, three, or more antihypertensive agents is often required to control BP.

Keywords: Hypertension; RAS-blockers; antihypertensive drugs; chronic kidney disease; proteinuria.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antihypertensive Agents / pharmacology
  • Antihypertensive Agents / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / drug therapy*


  • Antihypertensive Agents