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. 2020 Feb 14;12(2):450.
doi: 10.3390/polym12020450.

High-Conductivity, Flexible and Transparent PEDOT:PSS Electrodes for High Performance Semi-Transparent Supercapacitors

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Free PMC article

High-Conductivity, Flexible and Transparent PEDOT:PSS Electrodes for High Performance Semi-Transparent Supercapacitors

Jiaxing Song et al. Polymers (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Herein, we report a flexible high-conductivity transparent electrode (denoted as S-PH1000), based on conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and itsapplication to flexible semi-transparentsupercapacitors. A high conductivity of 2673 S/cm was achieved for the S-PH1000 electrode on flexible plastic substrates via a H2SO4 treatment with an optimized concentration of 80 wt.%. This is among the top electrical conductivities of PEDOT:PSS films processed on flexible substrates. As for the electrochemical properties,a high specific capacitance of 161F/g was obtained from the S-PH1000 electrode at a current density of 1 A/g. Excitingly, a specific capacitance of 121 F/g was retained even when the current density increased to 100 A/g, which demonstrates the high-rate property of this electrode. Flexible semi-transparent supercapacitors based on these electrodes demonstrate high transparency, over 60%, at 550 nm. A high power density value, over 19,200 W/kg,and energy density, over 3.40 Wh/kg, was achieved. The semi-transparent flexible supercapacitor was successfully applied topower a light-emitting diode.

Keywords: PEDOT:PSS; conducting polymer; high conductivity; high power density; semi-transparent supercapacitors.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Schematic diagrams for the preparation of the S-PH1000 electrode and the flexible semi-transparent supercapacitor. Firstly, the PH1000 solution was spin-coated on PES substrate where the polyethersulfonate (PES) substrate was attached to a rigid glass substrate with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet in between. After spin coating, the PES/PH1000 film was peeled-off from the glass/PDMS substrate and heated on a hot plate. Then, the sample was immersed into an 80 wt.% H2SO4 solution at different temperatures to enhance the conductivity. After that, the S-PH1000 electrode was dipped into H3PO4-PVA glue and two pieces of electrodes were assembled to form a flexible semi-transparent supercapacitor. The last picture is the digital photograph of the semi-transparent flexible supercapacitor based on S-PH1000 films.
Figure 2
Figure 2
(a) Conductivity and square resistance of PH1000, EG-PH1000 and S-PH1000 films. (b) XPS spectrum of the S-PH1000 film. (c) The transmittance of S-PH1000 electrode.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Cyclic voltammetry (CV) curves: (a) pristine PH1000 electrodes. (b) EG-PH1000 electrodes. (c) S-PH1000 electrodes. Charge-discharge profiles: (d) EG-PH1000 electrodes. (e) S-PH1000 electrodes. (f) A graphical representation of the specific capacitance as a function of the current density.
Figure 4
Figure 4
(a) Device structure of semi-transparent flexible supercapacitors: PES/S-PH1000/H3PO4-PVA/S-PH1000/PES. (b) The transmittance of the semi-transparent supercapacitor device. (c) CV curves of the S-PH1000 semi-transparent supercapacitors recorded at different scan rate of 50, 100, 200, 400 and 500 mV/s. (d) Galvanostatic charging/discharging (GCD) profiles of the semi-transparent supercapacitors recorded at different current densities of 1, 2, 5, 10 A/g. (e) A graphical representation of the variation of specific capacitance with respect to the current density. (f) Nyquist plot of the S-PH1000 semi-transparent flexible supercapacitor together with an enlarged photograph in the inset.
Figure 5
Figure 5
(a) Cycling stability of the S-PH1000 supercapacitor at a high scan rate of 100 mV/s. (b) GCD profiles of independent, series and parallel S-PH1000 electrodes based on supercapacitors of device A and B at a charge current density of 1 A/g. (c) CV curves of the semi-transparent flexible supercapacitors under different bending angles (60°, 120° and 150°). (d) Energy density and power density Ragone plots of the PEDOT-based supercapacitors in our work and reported in the literatures. Ref. 1 denotes the reference of ACS Nano, 2014, 8, 1500 while Ref. 2 denotes Energy Environ. Sci. 2015, 8, 1339. The inset is the demonstration of the supercapacitors driving a light-emitting diode.

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