Clinical characteristics of 140 patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Wuhan, China

Allergy. 2020 Jul;75(7):1730-1741. doi: 10.1111/all.14238. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Abstract

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been widely spread. We aim to investigate the clinical characteristic and allergy status of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: Electronic medical records including demographics, clinical manifestation, comorbidities, laboratory data, and radiological materials of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, with confirmed result of SARS-CoV-2 viral infection, were extracted and analyzed.

Results: An approximately 1:1 ratio of male (50.7%) and female COVID-19 patients was found, with an overall median age of 57.0 years. All patients were community-acquired cases. Fever (91.7%), cough (75.0%), fatigue (75.0%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (39.6%) were the most common clinical manifestations, whereas hypertension (30.0%) and diabetes mellitus (12.1%) were the most common comorbidities. Drug hypersensitivity (11.4%) and urticaria (1.4%) were self-reported by several patients. Asthma or other allergic diseases were not reported by any of the patients. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, 1.4%) patients and current smokers (1.4%) were rare. Bilateral ground-glass or patchy opacity (89.6%) was the most common sign of radiological finding. Lymphopenia (75.4%) and eosinopenia (52.9%) were observed in most patients. Blood eosinophil counts correlate positively with lymphocyte counts in severe (r = .486, P < .001) and nonsevere (r = .469, P < .001) patients after hospital admission. Significantly higher levels of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were associated with severe patients compared to nonsevere patients (all P < .001).

Conclusion: Detailed clinical investigation of 140 hospitalized COVID-19 cases suggests eosinopenia together with lymphopenia may be a potential indicator for diagnosis. Allergic diseases, asthma, and COPD are not risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Older age, high number of comorbidities, and more prominent laboratory abnormalities were associated with severe patients.

Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; allergy; eosinophil; risk factor.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Betacoronavirus / genetics*
  • C-Reactive Protein / analysis
  • China / epidemiology
  • Community-Acquired Infections
  • Comorbidity
  • Coronavirus Infections / blood
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / physiopathology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / virology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology*
  • Eosinophils
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Lymphopenia
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Pandemics
  • Pneumonia, Viral / blood
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / physiopathology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / virology
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index

Substances

  • C-Reactive Protein

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2