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Review
. 2020 Feb 17;10(2):73.
doi: 10.3390/metabo10020073.

Nidulantes of Aspergillus (Formerly Emericella): A Treasure Trove of Chemical Diversity and Biological Activities

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Free PMC article
Review

Nidulantes of Aspergillus (Formerly Emericella): A Treasure Trove of Chemical Diversity and Biological Activities

Najla Ali Alburae et al. Metabolites. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The genus Emericella (Ascomycota) includes more than thirty species with worldwide distribution across many ecosystems. It is considered a rich source of diverse metabolites. The published classes of natural compounds that are discussed here are organized according to the following biosynthetic pathways: polyketides (azaphilones, cyclopentenone pigments, dicyanides, furan derivatives, phenolic ethers, and xanthones and anthraquinones); shikimate derivatives (bicoumarins); mevalonate derivatives (meroterpenes, sesquiterpenes, sesterterpenes and steroids) and amino acids derivatives (alkaloids (indole-derivatives, isoindolones, and piperazine) and peptides (depsipeptides)). These metabolites produce the wide array of biological effects associated with Emericella, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, antimalarial, antiviral, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antifungal and kinase inhibitors. Careful and extensive study of the diversity and distribution of metabolites produced by the genus Emericella (either marine or terrestrial) revealed that, no matter the source of the fungus, the composition of the culture medium effectively controls the metabolites produced. The topic of this review is the diversity of metabolites that have been identified from Emericella, along with the contextual information on either their biological or geographic sources. This review presents 236 natural compounds, which were reported from marine and terrestrial Emericella. Amongst the reported compounds, only 70.2% were biologically assayed for their effects, including antimicrobial or cytotoxicity. This implies the need for substantial investigation of alternative activities. This review includes a full discussion of compound structures and disease management, based on materials published from 1982 through December 2019.

Keywords: alkaloids; anti-inflammatory; anti-oxidant; antimicrobial; ascomycota; cyclic peptides; fungi; polyketides.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Diversity of chemical classes obtained from the genus Emericella.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Structures of compounds 1–42.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Structures of compounds 43–55.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Structures of compounds 56–73.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Structures of compounds 74–97.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Structures of compounds 98–106.
Figure 7
Figure 7
Structures of compounds 107–122.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Structures of compounds 123–129.
Figure 9
Figure 9
Structures of compounds 130–135.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Structures of compounds 136–160.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Structures of compounds 161–185.
Figure 12
Figure 12
Structures of compounds 186–196.
Figure 13
Figure 13
Structures of compounds 197–210.
Figure 14
Figure 14
Structures of compounds 211–227.
Figure 15
Figure 15
Structures of compounds 228–236.

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