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. 2020 Feb 17;17(4):1290.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph17041290.

Energy Drink Consumption, Depression, and Salutogenic Sense of Coherence Among Adolescents and Young Adults

Free PMC article

Energy Drink Consumption, Depression, and Salutogenic Sense of Coherence Among Adolescents and Young Adults

Ákos Tóth et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
Free PMC article


The prevalence of energy drink consumption has increased in Hungary over the past 10-15 years. This study assesses the frequency, motivations, and adverse effects of energy drink consumption, and examines how the process of becoming a regular consumer is connected with sense of coherence and depression symptoms. A total of 631 high school and college students were assessed using the Depression Scale (BDS-13) and Sense of Coherence Scale (SOC-13). Logistic regression models were fit to test the effect of and links between factors influencing addiction to energy drink use. A total of 31.1% (95% CI: 27.4-34.7) of those surveyed consumed energy drinks, 24.0% of those affected consumed the energy drink with alcohol, 71.4% (95% CI: 64.7-77.3) experienced adverse effects following energy drink consumption, and 10.2% (95% CI: 6.7-15.2) experienced at least four symptoms simultaneously. The most common motivations of consumption were fatigue, taste, and fun. Obtained by multivariate logistic regression models, after adjustment for sex and age, SOC and tendency to depression had a significant influence on the respondents' odds of addiction. The tendency to depression increases the chances of addiction, while a strong sense of coherence diminishes the effects of depression. Young people in Hungary have been shown to consume energy drinks in quantities that are detrimental to their health. Complex preventive measures and programs are needed to address the problem. Families and educators should strive to instill a strong sense of coherence in children from an early age.

Keywords: adolescents; depression; energy drinks; sense of coherence; young adults.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Figure 1
Figure 1
Results of the principal component analysis.

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