Opportunistic bacterial infections amongst HIV-infected individuals contribute significantly to HIV-associated mortality. The role of HIV-mediated modulation of innate mechanisms like autophagy in promoting opportunistic infections, however, remains obscure. Here we show, HIV reactivation in or infection of macrophages inhibits autophagy and helps the survival of pathogenic Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and nonpathogenic non-tuberculous mycobacterial strains (NTMs). The HIV-mediated impairment of xenophagy flux facilitated bacterial survival. Activation of autophagy by trehalose could induce xenophagy flux and kill intracellular Mtb or NTMs either during single or co-infections. Trehalose, we delineate, activates PIKFYVE leading to TFEB nuclear translocation in MCOLN1-dependent manner to induce autophagy. Remarkably, trehalose significantly reduced HIV-p24 levels in ex-vivo-infected PBMCs or PBMCs from treatment-naive HIV patients and also controlled mycobacterial survival within Mtb-infected animals. To conclude, we report leveraging of HIV-mediated perturbed host innate-immunity by opportunistic bacterial pathogens and show an attractive therapeutic strategy for HIV and associated co-morbidities.Abbreviations: AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG5: autophagy related 5; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CFU: colony forming unit; CTSD: cathepsin D; CD63: CD63 molecule; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; FRET: Förster resonance energy transfer; GABARAP: gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-associated protein; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GLUT: glucose transporter; HIV: human immunodeficiency virus; hMDMs: human monocyte derived macrophages; IL2: interleukin 2; LAMP1: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1; LC3B-II: lipidated microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B; Mtb: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin; mRFP: monomeric red fluorescent protein; M6PR: mannose-6-phosphate receptor; NAC: N- acetyl- L -cysteine; NTM's: non-tuberculous mycobacteria; PBMC: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear cells; PIKFYVE: phosphoinositide kinase; FYVE-Type Zinc Finger; PHA: phytohemagglutinin; PMA: phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate; PtdIns(3,5)P2: Phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate; ptfLC3: pEGFP-mRFP-LC3; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SQSTM1: sequestosome1; TFEB: transcription factor EB; MCOLN1/TRPML1: mucolipin 1; PIP4P1/TMEM55B: Human trans-membrane Protein 55B; UVRAG: UV Radiation Resistance Associate; VPS35: vacuolar protein sorting associated protein 35; WDR45: WD repeat domain 45; YCAM: Yellow Chameleon.
Keywords: HIV-TB co-infection; mcoln1/TRPML1; non-tuberculous mycobacteria; opportunistic infection; pikfyve; trehalose; xenophagy.