Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative sarcopenia with regard to postoperative morbidity and long-term survival in patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC).
Methods: A longitudinal cohort study was conducted on patients with peritoneal metastases of colorectal origin treated with CRS-HIPEC between 2008 and 2018. Data on patient demographics, body mass index, operative characteristics, perioperative morbidity and survivorship status and oncological follow-up were obtained from the hospital registry. Sarcopenia was assessed using preoperative computed tomography (CT) findings.
Results: Sixty-five patients [mean (SD) age: 54.4 (13.4) years, 64.6% females] were included in the study. Sarcopenia was evident in 30.8% of patients, while mortality rate was 66.2% with median survival time of 33.6 months. Presence of sarcopenia was associated with older age (59.6 (9.2) vs. 52.1 (14.4) years, p = 0.038), higher likelihood of morbidity (70.0% vs. 35.6%, p = 0.015) and mortality (90.0% vs. 55.6%, p = 0.010) and shorter survival time (17.7 vs. 37.9 months, p = 0.005). Cox regression analysis revealed that the presence of sarcopenia (HR 2.245, 95% CI 0.996-5.067, p = 0.050) was a significant predictor of increased likelihood of mortality.
Conclusions: Preoperative sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor of postoperative morbidity and shorter survival in CRC peritoneal metastasis patients treated with CRS-HIPEC. Our findings support the importance of preoperative screening for sarcopenia as part of preoperative risk assessment for better selection of CRS-HIPEC candidates or treatment modifications in CRC patients with peritoneal metastasis.
Keywords: Colorectal cancer; HIPEC; Long-term outcomes; Peritoneal carcinomatosis; Peritoneal metastases; Sarcopenia.