Comparison of serum biochemical markers in patients with mesothelioma and pleural plaques versus healthy individuals exposed to environmental asbestos

Turk Gogus Kalp Damar Cerrahisi Derg. 2019 Jun 28;27(3):374-380. doi: 10.5606/tgkdc.dergisi.2019.17557. eCollection 2019 Jul.

Abstract

Background: In this study, we aimed to compare serum biochemical markers in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma and pleural plaques versus healthy individuals exposed to environmental asbestos.

Methods: Between September 01, 2010 and March 31, 2011, a total of 540 participants (354 males, 186 females; mean age 61.4 years; range, 35 to 89 years) were included in the study. The participants were divided into four groups as follows: (1) patients with pleural plaques (n=277); (2) healthy individuals with normal chest X-rays who were exposed to environmental asbestos (n=121); (3) healthy individuals with normal chest X-rays who were not exposed to environmental asbestos (n=118); and (4) patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma (n=24). Serum levels of carcinoembryonic antigen, cancer antigen 125, 15-3, 19-9, free T3, free T4, thyroidstimulating hormone, vitamin B12, folate, and ferritin were measured.

Results: Serum cancer antigen 125, 15-3, folic acid, vitamin B12, and ferritin levels were higher with lower free T3 levels in Group 4 than the other groups. The areas under the curve for cancer antigen 125 and 15-3 were 0.78 and 0.67, respectively in the differential diagnosis of mesothelioma from other pathologies (p<0.001 for both). Optimal limits of these biomarkers were 13.63 and 18.43 ng/mL, respectively with 83% and 75% sensitivity and 69% and 48% specificity, respectively.

Conclusion: The combination or individual use of serum cancer antigen 125, 15-3, folic acid, vitamin B12, and ferritin levels may be helpful for early diagnosis and treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

Keywords: Biochemical marker; ferritin; mesothelioma; pleural plaque.