Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a widespread disease characterized by a significant decrease of the quality of life. Antibiotic treatment of SIBO is usually effective, however, the recurrence rate is high. Microbiota is dependent on dietary pattern of the patient and specific nutrients, therefore the diversity of dietary patterns may be one of the major factor promoting SIBO or its relapses after treatment. The aim of the study was to compare nutritional diversity in patients with SIBО-H2 and in healthy controls.
Material and methods: Оne thousand twenty three patients with suspected SIBО were examined. Hydrogen-methane breath test with lactulose was performed in 973 patients, the results of which identified groups with SIBO-H2 (n=522), with SIBO-CH4 (n=340) and without signs of SIBO (n=108). Data on food intake was collected with 24 h recall from all participants. Dietary diversity was assessed using method of calculation of unique values (count base diversity) for 11 groups of food: cereals, meat and eggs, fish and non-fish seafood, fat containing products, dairy products, nuts, vegetables, fruits and berries, confectionery, drinks, sauces and spices. The pattern of food diversity for each patient was obtained by counting the items in each of the studied food groups. Comparison of the mean values of the number of items in each of the studied food groups was used to compare food diversity in patients with and without SIBО-H2.
Results and discussion: A comparison of nutritional diversity in patients with SIBO-H2 revealed a lower count base diversity in the groups of dairy products (2.70±1.37 vs 3.19±1.34, p<0.001), vegetables (5.50±2.22 vs 6.29±1.90, p<0.001), fruits (1.54± 1.38 vs 1.99±1.69, p=0.018) in compare with controls. Count base diversity in grains, meats, fishes, fat products, nuts and legumes and sweets did not demonstrate significant differences.
Conclusion: Significant differences in the diversity of dietary patterns in patients with SIBО were found in dairy products, vegetables and fruits and berries. The obtained data may be used to develop diet for SIBO patients additionally to the treatment and prevention of its relapses.
Keywords: breath test with lactulose; food diversity; nutrition assessment; small intestinal bacterial overgrowth.
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