The Examination of Restrained Joints Created in the Process of Multi-Material FFF Additive Manufacturing Technology

Materials (Basel). 2020 Feb 18;13(4):903. doi: 10.3390/ma13040903.


The paper is focused on the examination of the internal quality of joints created in a multi-material additive manufacturing process. The main part of the work focuses on experimental production and non-destructive testing of restrained joints of modified PLA (polylactic acid) and ABS (Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) three-dimensional (3D)-printed on RepRap 3D device that works on the "open source" principle. The article presents the outcomes of a non-destructive materials test in the form of the data from the Laser Amplified Ultrasonography, microscopic observations of the joints area and tensile tests of the specially designed samples. The samples with designed joints were additively manufactured of two materials: Specially blended PLA (Market name-PLA Tough) and conventionally made ABS. The tests are mainly focused on the determination of the quality of material connection in the joints area. Based on the results obtained, the samples made of two materials were compared in the end to establish which produced material joint is stronger and have a lower amount of defects.

Keywords: Additive manufacturing; FFF technology; laser amplified ultrasonography; tensile testing.