Collection of Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells in 1 Day Is Associated with Decreased Donor Toxicity Compared to 2 Days in Unrelated Donors

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2020 Jun;26(6):1210-1217. doi: 10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.02.011. Epub 2020 Feb 20.


Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have been increasingly used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation instead of bone marrow stem cells. Current National Marrow Donor Program policy recommends 5 days of daily filgrastim, followed by either 1 or 2 days of apheresis for unrelated donors, depending on collection center choice. To date, there are no published studies comparing the differences in donor experience between 1 day and 2 days of apheresis. We examined 22,348 adult unrelated donor collections in 184 centers between 2006 and 2016. Of these 22,348 donors, 20,004 (89.5%) had collection on 1 day, and the other 2344 (9.5%) had collection over 2 days. Information on why donors underwent apheresis in 1 day or 2 days was not available. Donors who underwent apheresis in 1 day were more likely to be male (67% versus 46%; P < .001), younger (age <30 years, 48% versus 36%; P < .001), and have a higher body weight (83.0 kg versus 75.9 kg; P< .001) and body mass index (BMI; >30, 30% versus 22%; P < .001). Successful collection of the requested CD34+ cell count was achieved on the first day in 82% of 1-day collections and in 16% of 2-day collections. Despite not administering filgrastim the evening after the first day of collection in patients who underwent 2 days of apheresis, the median concentration of CD34+ cells/L in the product was higher on the second day of apheresis compared with the first day (23.8 × 106 CD34+/L on day 1 versus 28.7 × 106 CD34+/L on day 2; P< .001). Donors who underwent collection in 1 day were less likely to experience citrate toxicity (36% versus 52%; P< .001), hospitalization (1% versus 6%; P< .001), and other side effects related to apheresis (Modified Toxicity Criteria incidence: 20% versus 26%; P < .001). Female sex, older age, collection via central lines, and higher BMI were factors associated with greater likelihood for the development of toxicity, whereas less toxicity was noted in those with higher CD34+ counts and more blood processed on the first day of collection. We conclude that although unrelated donors can be successfully collected in 1 day or 2 days, 1-day apheresis procedures were associated with less overall toxicity, and thus we recommend single-day collections, especially if the requested number of cells have been collected in 1 day.

Keywords: Apheresis; Donor toxicity; Unrelated donor.