Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive performance of the INCREMENT-CPE (ICS), Pitt bacteremia score (PBS) and qPitt for mortality among patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections.
Methods: Retrospective, multicenter, cohort study of patients with CRE infections treated with ceftazidime-avibactam between 2015 and 2019. The primary outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Predictive performance was determined by assessing discrimination, calibration and precision.
Results: In total, 109 patients were included. Thirty-day mortality occurred in 18 (16.5%) patients. There were no significant differences in discrimination of the three scores [area under the curve (AUC) ICS 0.7039, 95% CI 0.5848-0.8230, PBS 0.6893, 95% CI 0.5709-0.8076, and qPitt 0.6847, 95% CI 0.5671-0.8023; P > 0.05 all pairwise comparisons]. All scores showed adequate calibration and precision. When dichotomized at the optimal cut-points of 11, 3, and 2 for the ICS, PBS, and qPitt, respectively, all scores had NPV > 90% at the expense of low PPV. Patients in the high-risk groups had a relative risk for mortality of 3.184 (95% CI 1.35-8.930), 3.068 (95% CI 1.094-8.606), and 2.850 (95% CI 1.016-7.994) for the dichotomized ICS, PBS, and qPitt, scores respectively. Treatment-related variables (early active antibiotic therapy, combination antibiotics and renal ceftazidime-avibactam dose adjustment) were not associated with mortality after controlling for the risk scores.
Conclusions: In patients treated with ceftazidime-avibactam for CRE infections, mortality risk scores demonstrated variable performance. Modifications to scoring systems to more accurately predict outcomes in the era of novel antibiotics are warranted.
Keywords: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae; Ceftazidime–avibactam; INCREMENT-CPE; Pitt bacteremia.
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