Dying in the Neurointensive Care Unit After Withdrawal of Life-Sustaining Therapy: Associations of Advance Directives and Health-Care Proxies With Timing and Treatment Intensity

J Intensive Care Med. 2021 Apr;36(4):451-458. doi: 10.1177/0885066620906795. Epub 2020 Feb 24.


Background and purpose: Critically ill patients require a careful approach for prognosis and decision-making. The German health legislation aims to strengthen the role of advance directives (ADs) and health-care proxies (HCPs). Their impact within a dedicated neurocritical care setting is unknown. This study aimed to assess the practice of withdrawal or withholding of life-sustaining therapy (WOLST) in a German neurointensive care unit (NICU) focusing on whether AD or HCP is associated with timing and treatment intensity.

Methods: Data on patients who died after WOLST at a dedicated NICU of a German university hospital, from 2010 to 2013, were retrospectively analyzed.

Results: Of 400 deceased patients, 310 (77.5%) died after initiation of WOLST. Among them, 68 (21.9%) were identified to have AD or HCP or both (AD + HCP). WOLST patients with AD, HCP, or AD + HCP were older than those without (median age: 77 vs 72 years, P < .001) but did not show any other distinct baseline features. There was no difference in the specific neurocritical care measures between the groups. Poisson regression analysis showed no significant difference in the probability of time-dependent WOLST initiation between those with and without AD/HCP, after adjusting for age and sex (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-1.28; P = .244).

Conclusions: In this single-center study of mainly cerebrovascular NICU patients, AD or HCP was neither associated with an earlier WOLST nor associated with a difference in treatment intensity before WOLST. Further prospective studies should assess the emerging concept of advance care planning in neurocritical care.

Keywords: advance care planning; advance directive; end-of-life; neurocritical care; withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.

MeSH terms

  • Advance Directives*
  • Aged
  • Germany
  • Hospitals, University
  • Humans
  • Intensive Care Units
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Terminal Care*
  • Withholding Treatment*