Anticancer Activity of Liquid Treated With Microwave Plasma-Generated Gas Through Macrophage Activation

Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 Jan 31;2020:2946820. doi: 10.1155/2020/2946820. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO·) has been known as one of the key regulatory molecules in the immune system. In this study, we generated RNS-containing water treated with microwave plasma-generated gas in which the major component was nitric oxide (PGNO), and the effect on the macrophage polarization was investigated. The RNS-containing water was diluted in complete cell culture media (PGNO-solution) into the concentration that did not induce cell death in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. PGNO-solution upregulates M1-type macrophage activation and downregulates the characteristics of M2-type macrophage at the transcriptional level. In addition, the PGNO-solution-treated M2-like macrophages had higher potential in killing melanoma cells. The anticancer potential was also investigated in a syngeneic mouse model. Our results show that PGNO-solution has the potential to convert the fate of macrophages, suggesting PGNO-solution treatment as a supportive method for controlling the function of macrophages under the tumor microenvironment.