Reactive nitrogen species (RNS), including nitric oxide (NO·) has been known as one of the key regulatory molecules in the immune system. In this study, we generated RNS-containing water treated with microwave plasma-generated gas in which the major component was nitric oxide (PGNO), and the effect on the macrophage polarization was investigated. The RNS-containing water was diluted in complete cell culture media (PGNO-solution) into the concentration that did not induce cell death in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. PGNO-solution upregulates M1-type macrophage activation and downregulates the characteristics of M2-type macrophage at the transcriptional level. In addition, the PGNO-solution-treated M2-like macrophages had higher potential in killing melanoma cells. The anticancer potential was also investigated in a syngeneic mouse model. Our results show that PGNO-solution has the potential to convert the fate of macrophages, suggesting PGNO-solution treatment as a supportive method for controlling the function of macrophages under the tumor microenvironment.
Copyright © 2020 Chae Bok Lee et al.